Why is there an article in front of frío in the second instance?
In the second sentence "Hace un frío horrible" we are using the article because it is also a type of structure we use to describe the weather. However we say "Hace/hay + un/una .... +adjective" when we talk about something a bit "extreme", for example:
"Hay una tormenta muy grande en el norte" (There is a big storm in the north)
"Hace un calor terrible en Sevilla" (It is terribly hot in Seville)
The more simple structure with Hay/Hace + noun is less emphatic with less detail.
I hope this clarifies it.
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