In Spanish there are different ways to express a completed action. We can use the verb llevar with this purpose too.
Learn about accumulated actions with llevar + past participle in Spanish
In Spanish we can use the verb llevar followed by a past participle to express the completion of an action. The effect of using this verbal structure is similar to using haber + past participle, however using llevar gives a nuance of accumulation or repetition, and implies that the action will continue in the future.
Let's see some examples:
Llevamos recorridos 6 kilómetros. Esta tarde seguiremos caminando.[So far] we've done 6 kilometres. We will continue to walk this afternoon.
Llevaba leídas al menos 50 páginas y de repente perdí el libro.[Until then] I had read at least 50 pages and all of a sudden I lost the book.
Este autor lleva publicadas 5 novelas cortas.This author has [had] published 5 short novels [so far].
¿Llevas ahorrados 150 euros?Have you saved [so far] 150 euros?
In all these examples we can see a completed action [so far/until then] but we get the sense of a possible continuation in the future, by using llevar. If we had used the perfect tense with haber, that possible continuation wouldn't be implied.
Había leído al menos 50 páginas y de repente perdí el libro.
(I had read at least 50 pages and all of a sudden I lost the book.)
(completed action, no sense of possible continuation)
Notice that when we use this structure with llevar, the participle agrees in gender and number with the object:
Sometimes when using this structure, the meaning is a bit more literal and used to express how something is presented or what something includes. For example:
Señora, ese precio lleva incluido un 10 por ciento de descuento.Madam, that price includes a 10 percent discount.
El dispositivo lleva incorporado un sensor.The device is fitted with a sensor.
Ayer Andrés llevaba puesta una camisa de flores horrorosa.Yesterday Andrés was wearing a horrible flowery shirt.
They are describing how something is presented (camisa horrorosa) or what something includes (descuento, sensor). The past participle is still agreeing with the object.
There is a very similar structure conveying the same meaning. See Using tener + past participle to express the completion of an action (perífrasis verbal)
See also Using llevar + past participle to express the completion of an action so far (perífrasis verbal) and Spanish verbs Llevar vs Llevarse (pronominal verbs)
Want to make sure your Spanish sounds confident?
We’ll map your knowledge and give you free lessons to focus on your
gaps and mistakes. Start your Braimap today »