In Spanish there are different ways to express a completed action. We can use the verb llevar with this purpose too.
Learn about accumulated actions with llevar + past participle in Spanish
In Spanish we can use the verb llevar followed by a past participle to express the completion of an action. The effect of using this verbal structure is similar to using haber + past participle, however using llevar gives a nuance of accumulation or repetition, and implies that the action will continue in the future.
Let's see some examples:
In all these examples we can see a completed action [so far/until then] but we get the sense of a possible continuation in the future, by using llevar. If we had used the perfect tense with haber, that possible continuation wouldn't be implied.
Había leído al menos 50 páginas y de repente perdí el libro.
(I had read at least 50 pages and all of a sudden I lost the book.)
(completed action, no sense of possible continuation)
Notice that when we use this structure with llevar, the participle agrees in gender and number with the object:
Sometimes when using this structure, the meaning is a bit more literal and used to express how something is presented or what something includes. For example:
They are describing how something is presented (camisa horrorosa) or what something includes (descuento, sensor). The past participle is still agreeing with the object.
There is a very similar structure conveying the same meaning. See Using tener + past participle to express the completion of an action (perífrasis verbal)
See also Using llevar + past participle to express the completion of an action so far (perífrasis verbal) and Spanish verbs Llevar vs Llevarse (pronominal verbs)
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