When we say where something or a place is located we use "estar" not "ser,", even knowing that the location is permanent. This is a specific use of "estar". I hope this clarified your doubt.
If it has nothing to do with something being permanent, then what IS the rule?
Apparently you say "SOY estudiante". Hopefully you will not be a student forever (unless you have to try to learn Spanish, apparently...)
Location is just an "exception" to the general rule of thumb of permanent vs temporary. Bo raises a good point about how ser is used when talking about professions (estudiante is included in that) even though those are strictly temporary conditions too. But they are considered things that are either unlikely to change or change only happens after significant effort/time so that's why the "permanent" ser is used.
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