From your examples we have
It is windy
It is sunny
It is foggy
How do we know when to use which one please?
I am afraid when it comes to weather expressions it is very idiomatic so it hardly coincides with the English literal translations. So, there is a bit of memorising to do.
hacer/hay goes with nouns while estar goes with adjectives and participles. But words such as calor and frío are nouns in Spanish whereas in English they're adjectives. Go figure! So, yes memorization is sometimes esential!
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