Oración impersonal

Impersonal sentences

In Spanish there are different types of impersonal sentences, i.e., those that do not have a subject, generally because it is not relevant or unknown.

Using the 3rd person singular of the verb

1. Referring to the weather

Ayer nevó.
It snowed yesterday.

Amanece muy temprano.
It gets light very early.

We cannot extract any type of subject from these sentences. Who snowed? I don't know.

2. Using the verbs haberhacer and ser

Hace un día estupendo. 
It's a lovely day.

Había atasco en la carretera.
There was congestion on the roads.

Es muy tarde.
It's very late.

3. Using  "se" with the 3rd person singular

Se duerme bien en esta cama.
One sleeps well in this bed.

Se vende piso en la playa.
Flat for sale at the beach.*

*This last sentence can also be used in the 3rd person plural if the object is plural:

Se venden pisos en la playa.
Flats for sale at the beach.


Using the 3rd person plural of the verb

Using the impersonal 3rd person plural

Dicen que va a hacer frío mañana.
Apparently it will be cold tomorrow.

Llaman a la puerta.
Someone [we don't know who] is knocking at the door/There's someone at the door.