Bear in mind that sometimes it is difficult to know whether the speaker is using the subjunctive to convey a future idea or a shared information. Have a look again at this example:
Aunque esté nevando, voy a sacar al perro a pasear.
There are two possibilities here:
the speaker is thinking that it might snow later (but even so, nonetheless, he is taking the dog for a walk)
the speaker and the listener both know that it is snowing at that moment of speaking (but even so / nonethelesss, he is going to take the dog for a walk), so it is a background/shared information.
In this sentence, how can one say "aunque este nevando" and be speaking about the future? This seems like it would have to be an instance of shared information, right?
There is a similar example in the lesson explaining this interpretation:
2. To refer to something that may/may not happen later, in the future.
Voy a salir después aunque llueva mucho.
I am going out later even if it rains.
Here the speaker doesn't know whether it will rain or not later but it may rain, maybe because he can see a grey sky and there is a possibility of rain later.
Also, bear in mind that in Spanish the present tense is sometimes used for a future action, and the present subjunctive too. This is why we have this ambiguity sometimes.
I hope it clarifies it.
I think the translation given for the subjunctive use is wrong: ALTHOUGH is used in both cases.
For future it should be EVEN IF
Aunque esté nevando, voy a sacar al perro a pasear
EVEN IF it's snowing ( future implied from context ), I'm going to walk the dog.
Aunque está nevando, voy a sacar al perro a pasear.
ALTHOUGH or EVEN THOUGH it is snowing ( present implied from context), I'm going to walk the dog
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